Ocena statusu krajobrazu jako podstawa jego ochrony na przykładzie krajobrazów kemów i ozów Niziny Śląskiej. Assessment of the status of the landscape as the basis for its conservation, on the example of kame and esker landscapes of the Silesia Lowland

Krzysztof Badora


Landscape, defined as a fragment of space characterised by a specific structure and functioning, is a limited exhaustive and non- renewable resource. This means that its rationing is crucial in processes of space management. An element of this allocation is protection of a pool of landscapes preserved in possibly the most natural form, representative for environmental diversity of a given area. Preservation of a complete representation of typological units of landscapes of a different rank within forms of nature protection is the main challenge of contemporary landscape conservation. Protection of landscape beyond the aspect of its physiognomy should link two main streams of nature protection: conservation of biodiversity and protection of geodiversity. Assessment of landscape status is of basic importance for its protection. It may be defined as a situation of a certain typological unit of the landscape (e.g. kames, dunes, frontal moraine elevations, peatbogs, springs, structural escarpments, etc.) in the area limited by natural or anthropogenic boundaries (e.g. in Sudety Mountains, Silesia Lowland, Opole voivodship, Poland). This can be also assessed according to the form (rank) in the landscape system as signed to the unit of landscape of a given type by co -acting forces of nature and anthropo pressure. The status of the unit or a group of units of certain type and rank in a heterogeneous landscape depends upon: – quantity of resources (e.g. the number of sites of occurrence, total surface), – location in relation to other units of the same type and generally in a landscape system, – structural features of the landscape, including size, allocation of each landscape component, types and development of boundaries etc., – stage of landscape transformation (the range of devastation, which should be treated as the primary factor of landscape changes and of degradation – which should be treated as secondary Factor), – role of landscape in spatial development (a potential for development of various functions of space) – the higher potential of development of e.g. agrculture or settlements, the higher threat. This is so according to the rule which states that high potential of development of a given function rises forces that destabilise the landscape and cause changes in its structure and functioning, in consequence – its status. Studies on the structure of kames and eskers in the Silesia Lowland covered a collection of over a hundred of forms, very diverse in structure and genesis. They are concentrated in border are as of the Lowland. Based on assessment of anthropopressure it was shown that the greatest threat to these lands capes are associated with exploitation of natural aggregates, deposition of wastes and agriculture. In one case the senegative factors caused a complete destruction of a kame. A relatively small part of these landscapes remain covered with forest. Assessment of distribution of nature protection forms in the Silesia Lowland indicates that majority of kame and esker landscapes are notcovered with protection.

Słowa kluczowe

status of landscape, landscape conservation, kames and eskers, Silesia Lowland, status krajobrazu, ochrona krajobrazu, kemy i ozy, Nizina Śląska

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